General Information


Please do not forget!
» All stones are absorbent. Especially when they absorb water, their colors become darker, and when they dry, their colors lighten.
» When the stones are wet, all the tissues, veins and fossils appear, and when they dry, they fade or disappear.
» Mortar mounting should not be carried out in cold weather, when it is below zero. The mortar freezes, the cement deteriorates, and the stone does not stick to its place.
» When underfloor heating is applied, a small joint gap should be left since the stones may expand from the heat.
» Before impregnation or chemical application, it is absolutely necessary to wait for the stones and even the mortar underneath to dry well. Moisture and humidity should not be trapped at the bottom. Otherwise, stains may appear on the stones.
» Be sure to use mechanical carriers and holders in your exterior applications.


These unusual stones can be geologically classified as follows:
  • Igneous rocks (Granite, diabase, syenite etc.)
  • Metamorphic rocks (Genuine marbles, recrystallized limestones etc.)
  • Sedimentary rocks (Travertines, onyx marbles, conglomerate etc.)

Igneous rocks:
Fully crystalline plutonic rocks (granite) are formed when the cooling and solidification of magma occurs gradually at depth, while volcanic (basalt) and vein rocks (diabase) are formed if cooling and solidification occurs rapidly or quickly at or near the surface of the earth.

This means the mineral change or mineral transformation that occurs in the rocks in solid form due to various physical and chemical conditions prevailing in the depths of the earth's crust.
Minerals are stable under a certain temperature and pressure. Each mineral has its own temperature and pressure sensitivity. If there is an increase or a change in temperature and pressure, a change begins in the mineral and it turns into another stable mineral with the same chemical composition. Thus, a mineral transformation takes place. This is the essence of metamorphism.

Sedimentary rocks:

Sandstone with occasional bands of iron oxide.
Sediments are formed by the accumulation of crumbs and other dissolution products of formerly existing rocks, eroded by external factors such as streams, glaciers, winds, waves, or substances formed in situ by chemical means, under normal pressure and temperature, in above-water or underwater environments. Sediments undergo various changes over time. They are compressed under the weight of the accumulating materials, the water they contain is expelled, their pores are reduced and their volume is decreased. New minerals can be formed by chemical events occurring within themselves. As a result of all these processes spanning hundreds of thousands, maybe even millions of years, the sediments harden and become petrified.

Plutonic Rocks Volcanic Rocks Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic rocks
Granite Basalt Sandstone Limestone Limestone → Marble
Syenite Andesite Claystone Gypsum Granite → Gneiss
Diorite Obsidian (volcanic glass) Pebble (conglomerate) Rock salt Hard coal → Diamond
Gabbro Tuff   Coal  

Marble is a composition formed by the recrystallization of limestone and dolomitic limestones as a result of metamorphism. The main mineral in marbles consisting of CaCO3 crystals is “Calcite”. Small amounts of silica, silica, feldspar, iron oxide, mica, fluorine and organic substances may also be present.

When examined under the microscope, it is understood that it consists of "Calcite Crystals" that are tightly interlocked.

Any type of stone that can be cut and polished is considered “marble”, in the industrial sense.

Marble is found in many artifacts built B.C. Although the types of marbles used in these works are very diverse, it should not be overlooked that their sizes are very large. Marble is frequently encountered in historical, ancient temples, marble statues, palaces, Egyptian pharaoh tombs, pyramids, city walls, castles, stadiums and open-air theatres.

The very well-known Italian Carrara marble was used by Roman and Renaissance sculptors, especially Michelangelo, and is still widely used.

Onyx Marbles:
If the temperature of the water containing CaCO3 formed as a result of magma is quite low, if it contains mostly mineral salts and the amount of water is low; precipitation will occur more slowly. The stone formed under these conditions is crystallized, dense and highly transparent. These stones are called onyx marble. Since they are translucent, they can transmit light up to a depth of 1-3,5 cm.

Granite is a granular igneous rock type consisting of hard, crystalline minerals. The word granite comes from the Latin granum, found in the coarse-grained structure of a completely crystalline rock. The main minerals of feldspar are orthoclase and small amounts of plagioclase and quartz. They are resistant to abrasion, pressure and impact as they contain more than 20% and up to 60% quartz in volume.

Granites can be white, pink or gray in color depending on the mineralogy, while they can also be seen in orange and similar tones depending on the type and amount of feldspars and other minerals.

Granites are very common on earth. It appears in various earth crust models. It is accepted that the crust of the earth consists mostly of granite. It can be found in nature as dyke, silica and batholith.

It has been used abundantly since ancient times as paving and curbstone on roads and as building stone in buildings.

It can be easily used in bathrooms, tables, countertops, flooring, fireplaces, walls, yacht and boat projects.

Quartzite is a rock with high resistance and it has 2 types: sedimentary and metamorphic. The chemical composition of quartzite is SiO2, such as quartz, sandstone (quartz sandstone) and quartz sand, although varying amounts of feldspar, mica, clay, magnetite, hematite, garnet, rutile and limestone can be found in quartzite.
Quartzite is usually composed of iron oxide (Fe2O3). Various hues such as pink and red are also seen due to varying amounts.

Usage areas:
Quartzite is not only durable but also a very decorative stone. It can be used to cover walls, floors and stairs. It is being used more and more on countertops in kitchens and bathrooms. It is harder, more durable and more resistant to stains than granite. It can be used in exterior applications, in busy areas such as hotels and shops, and as a dining table stone.

Quartz is the name given to very pure silicon dioxide (SiO2) crystals. It is a hard, crystalline mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms. There are many different varieties of quartz, many of which are semiprecious stones. Since ancient times, varieties of quartz have been among the most commonly used minerals for making jewelry and hard stone carvings, especially in Eurasia.

Formation of Quartz:
While the majority of quartz crystallizes from molten magma, most quartz also precipitates chemically as gangue from hot hydrothermal veins, sometimes with ore minerals such as gold, silver, and copper. Large quartz crystals are found in igneous pegmatites. Well-formed crystals can reach several meters in length and weigh hundreds of kilograms.

Precious stones (or gemstones) are minerals used in jewelry making and sometimes industrially. Since they are scarce, their material value is high. Except for diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and sapphires, they are generally considered semi-precious stones. Some rock types such as lapis lazuli and some organic materials such as amber are also considered semi-precious stones because they are used in jewelry making.

It can take millions of years for a crystal to form in nature. A small part of these are found and processed by people in different ways. After processing, its quality, size and purity determine its value. This depends on a few different factors.